Changing Contours of Internal Security

By Team Q-Tech

The Contours of Internal Security are getting more complex and some of the factors are undesirable developments, which have a grave potential and biggest concern directly affecting national security.

The Challenge

The contours of Internal Security are getting more complex with exploitation of social fabric, insurgency, militancy, terrorism and Islamic radicalisation caused by globalisation, non state actors, role of media, and proliferation of technology and rising aspirations of the younger generations. Indian diversity, myriad social structures causes a concern and weakens the very foundation of the nationhood and the shared value of the 'Idea of India.   Some of these factors are undesirable developments which have a grave potential and biggest concern directly affecting national internal security or Homeland Security. The natures of the asymmetric internal and external security threats are due to cross border activities. Every border is unique in respect of the challenges such as Terrain, Lack of infrastructure and development, Territorial integrity and Claims, Counter Infiltration and Migration, Illegal activities, like drug and arms Fake Currencies, Ethnic and cultural similarities with people across the borders etc. The above concerns adds to homeland security challenges   and are more diverse than ever before.

Homeland Security Apparatus

India's Homeland security apparatus primarily consists of State and Central police forces, intelligence agencies and coastal security forces--all under the overall management of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). The internal security, management of paramilitary forces, border management, Centre-State relations, administration of Union Territories and disaster management, has key sectors as priority areas intelligence and warning, border and transportation security, Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP), domestic counter-terrorism, coastal security, and assets vital to public health, safety, political institutions and economy which need specific focus on  strengthening the internal security of the country.  The respective domain and stakeholders are shown in diagram.

Technology a Substitute

At present, border management is manpower intensive and there is a need to supplement human surveillance and patrolling. The nature of security threats, which India face, has been pushing the Indian Government to readdress its internal security strategy, escalating the budget allocation for new procurements and fast tracking the procurements of security and defence systems/weaponries in order to safeguard the country. The homeland security sector is also attracting similar attention from India's Defence Industrial Base (DIB) as the defence sector itself. A greater infusion of technology into border guarding is required in keeping with the peculiarities of terrain and threats.

Some of the key technologies that can be 'force substitutors' and can be exploited are, Multi layered autonomous systems, Smart Fences with sensors and surveillance systems, Integrated C4ISR, UAVs/ Drones including Armed drones, Satellite Imagery, GIS and digitized maps, Communication systems and Artificial Intelligence etc.

India's demand for Homeland Security technology requirement not just upgrading the skills of the police, intelligence and paramilitary forces but also for the technology that can enhance security of commercial establishments, public places and critical infrastructure, educational institutions, the IT Industry and vital public facilities and services. In addition technology to battle insurgency and to counter threats of IEDs and explosives as well as, to provide aerial mobility (both fixed wing and rotary) to the police forces to counter terrorism is enormous. The relative sector spending in the past and the projected is depicted below.

Keeping the huge requirement in mind, the MHA should ensure a substantial modernization budget for the CAPFs year on year if it wants to have modernized CAPF with latest hi tech systems / technologies.

Market Potential

Existing the total size of Indian homeland security market complex however estimates depicts that the Indian HLS market currently stands at about $ 18 billion approximately, with a combined annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12-15 percentage it is emerging as one of the fastest-growing segments of the country.

Over half of the market growth in coming years is expected to come from a demand in new equipment especially for electronic surveillance, mine detection and early warning systems owing to modernisation of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) and a part of it flows to the state polices organizations. The bulk of the expenditures will be on arms, ammunition, transport, communication equipment, bullet proof vests and explosive-handling devices. Spending on police modernization is expected to exhibit a CAGR of over 5.0 percentages. Various other sectors such as airport security, surveillance projects, integrated security systems etc are also rapidly increasing their footprints in the Indian homeland security matrix. Apart from this, the main opportunities for growth in this sector are expected in the aviation, mass transportation, hospitality, integrated security systems and maritime security markets in the coming years.

Given the vast potential of the market, there is a renewed interest in the homeland security, with a host of private and foreign companies/manufacturers seeking to leverage the opportunities that exist in this largely undocumented segment. Indian companies have also started tying up with foreign players to explore the opportunity to provide security solutions to Indian forces. These companies provide global state-of-the-art commercial and homeland security technology products, solutions and services for border protection, marine security, counter-insurgency, city surveillance and other critical security infrastructure needs. Over the years, industry and private players are increasingly becoming a large market constituent for some segments as shown in table below.

Way Forward

Today's homeland security challenges are more complex and diverse than ever before. Considering that crime would grow exponentially in the next few decades unless we make use of technology and impart proper training to the security forces, the Indian homeland security industry will be witnessing steep hike in coming years. Substantiating limited capability of security forces with new equipment, creation of new and dedicated forces and units to counter emerging situations, cross-border terrorism and domestic insurgency, proactive approach to critical infrastructure, asset protection and disaster management are certain factors that will be driving the Indian homeland security market in future.

To stay ahead, governments, police, national security forces and the private security sector must utilise the latest and best technology to manage identities and secure borders, control access, process asylum applications and fight crime. A Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is also a feasible solution to develop homeland security solutions to ensure safe, secure and smart cities, ports and highway which the Government should seriously think to implement.

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